An anthropological introduction to YouTube

September 4, 2008

Michael Wesch (Web 2.0 … The Machine is Us/ing Us), teaching Digital Ethnography @ Kansas State University, talks about viral videos, YouTube and its complex community – recommended for everyone interested in online video history/communities and the deeper connections that exist beyond viewing numbers and market shares…

“presented at the Library of Congress, June 23rd 2008. This was tons of fun to present. I decided to forgo the PowerPoint and instead worked with students to prepare over 40 minutes of video for the 55 minute presentation. This is the result.”


Open-source animation tools, indie media links and end of a journey

June 30, 2008

P2P Audiovisual Wiki: open-source animation June 08 update

With the June 08 update I am stepping down as the maintainer of the P2P Audiovisual Guide, I’ve been working on this project for the last two years and now need to focus on being productive with some of the tools we list. The June update features a small but fine selection of the best and most promising free and open-source animation tools (2D, 3D and code based animation) that could be of interest to both beginners and experienced animators: P2P Audiovisual Guide (scroll down for the June 08 update…)

Indie media links

A couple of weeks ago I already decided to stop updating another one of my online project,, one reason being that since the latest update it became clear that “older” apps like mine (I was an early adopter of the ning platform about three years ago) would not remain fully functional in the future without extra work on the app’s code – while I am now starting to look into Python scripting for my blender 3D works I am still far away from being a programmer and don’t want to spend time fixing my bookmarks app…

Both the P2P Audiovisual Wiki and feature selected (open-source) tools, sites and services that could be of interest to indie film makers, artists or researchers… I am still thinking about how-to organise my future online projects, I am not sure if the Wiki format is ideal for me, nor do I want to start using another web 2.0 service that might not function properly in a couple of years time or (like previously sell out to a company that I don’t feel comfortable being with. Probably an open-source solution running on my own server will be what I’ll end up doing, but those are just plans for the time being…

End of a journey

In a way this is now the end of a virtual journey through the Wild West of (indie) online web services and projects for me that has been going on since about 2004: after surfing on waves for a couple of months I started my own link collection on, moved on to (first as a user then as a moderator), started and for the last two years now helped building the P2P Foundation’s Wiki by writing/maintaining the P2P Audiovisual Guide. See this page for all my (other) online projectsfor now I am putting all of them aside, including my indiworks channel that I probably will not update any more. The current video RSS feed solution via videobomb is far from ideal. Still, my indiworks channel/video RSS feed will be available as long as the videobomb service remains functional. Later this year, once I’ve found a satisfying solution for all my online projects, I plan to offer some sort of replacement for it. In any case: all my videos will of course remain available for download via the Internet Archive, I have no plans whatsoever to change that, the IA is the best and most reliable service of its kind that I’ve had the pleasure to use since I uploaded my first online video to their open-source movies section around autumn 2004. (Note that the download numbers on a video’s IA page only include the downloads made directly via the video’s page – those made via a link or a video RSS feed are not included…)

And now…?

After exploring (indie) online video distribution, researching free and open-source media creation tools, learning (and still learning…) blender for two years now and recently switching from OS X to Ubuntu the time has come for me to focus on the production side of things as well as finding a more satisfying way of presenting and distributing my work. I’ll keep (updating) this blog for a while to come, but plan to have a better (= more online video friendly) solution in place when the reorganisation of my online projects is done…

See you in Cyberspace!

Film 2.0: The Open Video and Story Remix Platform

June 20, 2008

The following text was originally written for a publication about online video to come out later this year. I was asked to make a series of changes that I just could not agree to and therefore took back my text. The integrity of my work means more to me than having it published in print.

I am aware that the text might come across as a bit extreme or seem strange to some – others just might find this particular style and energy interesting – I do and that’s why the text is the way it is. Sorry if you don’t like it, what I tried with this is to write down all of my thoughts about online video and the new medium itself – how I see film, video and storytelling developing into something new: the open video and story remix platform – an online “theme park theatre”.

I see a medium evolving from film and cinema, not as its replacement, but as “the next thing” – I believe that there will always be something like cinema – in one form or another – and this text is about that other form…

The Online Theme Park Theatre: an Open Video and Story Remix Platform

(1.0 version, 04.04.08; for this blog post, 20.06.08: three minor changes/corrections concerning the hyperlinks as well as bold highlighting for skimming the text and some underlining for layout/clarity reasons.)

The author likes to thank Till Alberts and Nicolai Gütermann for giving their valuable feedback and input to a first draft version of this text.


This is a collection of thoughts about the collaborative possibilities that online video offers and a look at free solutions for setting up an independent online video remix platform powered by free software.

This is not a technical manual nor is it a detailed business plan – it is a “free idea”. Free as the air and in the sense of obvious.

This text is the introductory chapter to a book that has not been written yet. And, when thinking about it, you might agree that this would be a book where everyone just has to write their own version: the theme/story platform concept is about just that.

This is also a new look at the medium itself that we are dealing with – the medium that we simply refer to as “online video”.

A free idea for free stories

One of the biggest possibilities for online video lies in its collaborative potential. What we are witnessing today is the birth of a new medium: grainy, handheld phone cam YouTube videos watched on laptops instead of silent, static, b/w film projected onto a screen. But this time it all seems to happen so much faster – and there are two key differences: this time the tools needed for producing moving images are much more accessible, while all potential participants are connected via networks and channels of all kinds. It is this powerful combination that makes the web, seen as a platform, an extremely exiting place to be as a film maker: an open video and story remix platform, a “virtual theatre” – a new, mashed-up medium, a “killer app” for the web.

A little more than 100 years after film was born the aristocratic/monopolistic structures for the production and distribution of moving images (and media in general) are falling apart (we even have phone cams and online video editing solutions now…) and rising is a much more diverse, richer and powerful infrastructure for moving images creation. But video sharing platforms and media archives are only the beginning – just like when editing a video you first get all the footage in one place (on a media platform you upload it) and make a preselection while organising your work (on a media platform you label/tag the video). Once that is done you start with the actual, creative editing process…

In the video editing world “online” can mean two things (that have nothing to do with the World Wide Web as such): “available” (footage from a disconnected hard drive that is still part of the project you are working on is referred to as being “off-line” – it is not available). The other meaning: “online editing” (meaning you were first working with a lower quality copy of the video and now that the actual editing is done you replace the lower quality copy with its original master footage – you “on-line” it. Now, from an editor’s point of view and in the context of the World Wide Web, there is a third meaning to “online video”: video footage that is free and legally (or you just don’t care like the avant-garde has done for decades) available on the web for reuse (and for retransmission to the collective audiovisual information stream). If you connect all three meanings from above the unified definition for “online video” turns out to be “free available master (footage)”.

Editing is about structuring and a film editor can be seen as someone who is programming a series of moving images. As increasingly well connected internet users we have started conversations on a multitude of levels – e.g. by making a video, reacting in one way or another to a video we’ve seen. Reacting becomes remixing. Fake movie trailers, popular online in recent years, will most probably prove to be real movie trailers, in fact. The remix feature film is likely to be “coming soon to a browser (and portable media player) near you”. We’ve finally build ourselves repositories and networks that allow us to start realising so complex undertakings as the community made open-source feature length film. Example for a finished remix feature length documentary made by one single editor (with the Final Cut Pro files available for further remixing): “Panorama Ephemera” (2004) by Rick Prelinger –

How it works

Within a few years the world of blogs (the “blogosphere”) has established itself as a highly effective, alternative infrastructure for publishing and delivering news (open for anyone to participate, accessible for minorities and specialists of all kinds). Something very similar is happening right now with the world of moving images: the cinema of the future seems to crystallise itself to be an online video remix platform – open for anyone to participate, allowing the audience to interact with the content on a multitude of levels. An existing example is YouTube: you can make playlists, find clips that are related to others, react to a video by making and uploading your own video and allowing others to view and share it and to react to it again – YouTube really is a new kind of movie: a dynamic, interactive show with thousands of channels and millions of clips forming a part of the “free available master (footage).

Just like YouTube seemed like a far out vision only ten to fifteen years ago (remember the time when there was no internet and when no one had a mobile phone?) the cinema of the future might seem like an idealist’s dream today while in fact it is materialising already – in platforms such as YouTube. In the end it is likely to be some kind of open, social media network: the “online theme park theatre”. Core product of such a platform will be a cinematic presentation of a story that relates in a strong way to the theme that the platform is centred around. Since different themes attract different audiences, and different people develop different kinds of stories, a multitude of such platforms (possibly evolving as “genre platforms” and offering a multitude of theme centred, individual projects) will exist. At the same time these shows will also be screened in real world cinemas while digital distribution/projection will further help to democratise the new medium and bring high quality, content rich community produced projects to large mainstream audiences and their established viewing environments. And online you’ll be able to watch a movie in a virtual theatre (either alone or with many others) that you (can) create/interact with while you are watching. The stories you’ll see will have a life of their own, might first need to be developed over a longer period of time (just like e.g. Linux took about ten to fifteen years to mature into a mainstream product), but in the end these multimedia shows will turn out to be our generation’s online classics: myths, legends and stories with heroes and heroines from the new world. It also seems very likely that real world/online (story) worlds will melt into one another in unprecedented ways – which again is only reminiscent of one of the oldest movie themes we know: the exploration of that fine line between dream and reality.

Movies today are prepackaged dreams – movies of the future will be modular, dynamic and interactive dreams.

A visualised stream of thoughts

Online video allows creators to innovate, something a big Hollywood studio just can not afford because of ever exploding budgets – and the budgets themselves are just consequences of the attempts to fix with money what a special effect can’t buy: a good story. And so it became possible that simple stories – told from one person to another, by people gathering in groups, sitting around computer screens (our modern day fire places) – that these simple stories are now a serious competition for the industrial FX magician from Hollywood who lights very bright, very expensive fires that may look nice, but too often turn out to be illusions of fire places with no storyteller around.

In ten to fifteen years time we might already visit a (virtual online) theatre offering a 3D holographic experience and connecting tens of thousands of people at the same time – a bit like today’s “massively multiplayer online role-playing games” (MMORPGs) – people coming together in one place to experience a multimedia show that can be consumed, customised, contributed to, shared with others, remixed and retransmitted to another remix node in the network. The most effective way of realising this will be by using a totally open, non proprietary infrastructure without any kind of DRM or creativity restricting copyright laws.

But since this is a new medium we should not limit ourselves to think of it as a 90 minutes long experience…

Moving images are a visualisation of thoughts. And since the human mind likes stories we arrange those images into stories that can easily be shared and communicated: video is becoming a unifying language that almost everyone understands. Online video, our “free available master (footage)”, is a visualised stream of thoughts in an ongoing global conversation with feedback loops of all kinds – with each conversation a video stream gets better, smarter – like a programmer’s code evolving from a 0.1 beta version to the 1.0 final release – and all of this is happening while old media still tries to adapt, e.g. by suing its fans and costumers who try to integrate the static, old media content with the dynamic online one by sharing and remixing it!

Some tools and questions

Some of the tools needed for a meta platform like a virtual remix theatre already exist, others are just being built. We already have a couple of open-source movie projects (e.g.: “The Digital Tipping Point” or “Big Buck Bunny” while a multitude of high-quality, free and open-source media production and distribution tools are flooding the market that was once dominated by commercial, closed-source, proprietary software from monopolists.

Some of the free and open-source tools (many, many more available) already in place are:

– on the content creation side:

Blender (3D modelling, animation, rendering, video post –, Gimp (image and photo manipulation –, Inkscape (vector graphics editor –, Ardour (digital audio workstation –, Kino (DV video editor –

– on the distribution side:

Miro (internet TV and video player incl. BitTorrent support –, VLC (media player and streaming server –, Songbird (media player and Mozilla based Browser –, Plumi (Video CMS –, MediaWiki (Wikipedia’s Wikisoftware –; for Wiki style video editing see:, WordPress (blogging software –, Ogg Vorbis and Ogg Theora (patent/royalty free audio and video encoding –, Croquet Consortium (creation and deployment of collaborative multi-user online applications and metaverses –

Next to semi-open/closed platforms like YouTube – does not support Creative Commons licences ( – there are CC licence friendly platforms like ( and the incredible non-profit Internet Archive ( Other sites like Ning ( let users create their own social networks including pre-built micro video sharing sites à la YouTube, free to use, CC licence friendly.

In the end not technology but the quality of the actual story that a virtual story park is centred around will make a project work. More helpful than any rules and how-tos for story development are simple questions – they always work! (Rules are too specific – questions are open, universal and lead to new questions…) So here a couple of questions for online storytellers and remix video producers:

Who is my/our audience? Who is/are my leading character(s)? What does he/she/they want? What forces are opposed to our hero’s goal? In the end, will our heroine get what she wants? What’s the story in one sentence? What’s the story in three sentences?

Note: possibly these question might seem “too simple” and not appear to be useful – in that case come back once you’ve started developing your project! Being able to answer those simple questions will give you a good foundation for developing a working, complex story – if answered well those are in fact rather hard questions! For more questions read Linda Seger’s classic “Making A Good Script Great”, for the eye-opening, mythological approach to storytelling read “The Writer’s Journey” by Christopher Vogler.

The next step

Now before proceeding please click to confirm:

Commercial Break To be Continued… The End

Video Vortex Conference 2008 (2 of 2): Some thoughts to the conference, YouTube and more

January 27, 2008

Theory, moving images

I was a bit surprised about the theoretical focus of the conference and had expected to see more visual works and examples. But I am also a very visual person and in general find it hard to listen to people talking especially if what they say is rather abstract – I like to get something concrete out of it, results, consequences of the analysis, maybe what it now all means for my own work. I think this is what I missed (or maybe did not get) from some of the theoretical presentations, as interesting as they were.

Old school word

I never liked the word “amateur”, I always thought that it sounded too old fashioned and, depending on who is using it, either has a submissive or insulting meaning attached to it.

There was a time before MiniDV when the best/cheapest option a low-budget indie video production had was to shoot on Hi8. Once the movie was cut a copy for a potential buyer was made onto Betacam SP and if you were lucky a smaller TV station would buy it. But most of the time you were told that your tape was not up to a certain technical standard (since it had been shot with “amateur” equipment). The “amateur” video argument was of course only a pretext to get rid of the indie competition, TV stations never had a problem with their own shows that featured funny cats and cute babies home videos.

There were a couple of instances at the conference where I thought that “amateur” was used in similar ways as TV stations had once used it – the arguments are always the same and it is the attempt to defend an exclusive position or monopoly.

Money was never good at measuring the quality of a product – the best things in life are free and some of what the online indie/experimental/art film and video scene offers is so much more inspired than what the so called professional content media industry delivers on TV and sadly also to the cinemas.

Differences between DRM and exclusivity?

Another thing that quite surprised me at the conference was to hear that there seem to be artists who don’t want to share their works online, specially on YouTube, because they feel this would misrepresent them, kind of take away an aura of exclusivity.

There are good reasons for not wanting to share your work on YouTube (e.g. their Terms of Use or because you prefer other solutions like Show in a Box).

But why feel threatened by being on the same platform with thousands of other creative minds? Why limit access to your work (via passwords etc.) if it is available for free anyway?

How different is this position from the mainstream entertainment industry that out of fear of loosing control is limiting the distribution of their media with DRM?

If you have been a successful video artist you can still be a successful online video artist! The avant-garde is called that way because it is forward thinking. But wanting to limit access to your work, wanting to retain exclusivity is so backwards thinking that it hurts. Why not let the world see what you have to offer? Why fear the YouTube competition…? What can you really loose…?

YouTube as a movie

I see YouTube as a huge, interactive movie. Like a mixture of a Wikipedia for moving images (licensing issues and the YouTube TOS aside) and a free on demand video library: there seems to be no moment that a human can go through in the course of life that is not in some way represented on YouTube. As a viewer you can combine these moments and generate your own feature length movie – if you feel something is missing or think you have a better version of a moment you can always upload it. And of course there are the prebuilt movies (short movies or longer ones posted in multiple parts).

YouTube is a unique, collective visual oeuvre created by its millions of users and the community features (comments, playlists, subscribers) empower the users to communicate on all kinds of levels, in all kinds of ways.

Did I hear people say at the conference that cinema was this collective experience and that online video is something for lonely people…? How often do you actually talk to the other people in the audience when you go to the cinema…? Yes, it is special to sit in a big theatre with a large audience, but the “lonely argument” is not true at all for online video – it is however true for TV.

YouTube is everything you want it to be. If you want to prove that there is “only” pirated content on YouTube you can quickly come up with a series of examples. But you could also prove that there are “only” funny cat videos. Or artistically remarkable works.

Also I can’t share the view that video artists don’t use YouTube. Some of the best works I have seen in recent years I have seen on YouTube.

My YouTube “favourites”

Since none of the three videos that I submitted as a favourite made it to the selection we saw on the last day of the conference here those videos – all remix works that would not exist if their makers had taken copyright laws seriously:

Make sure to watch the Zidane Headbutt Remix! I think this one is close to genius and should keep even the most hardcore film/media/culture theorist entertained…

Cillit Bang – JAKAZiD ft Barry Scott [Nukleuz]

Zidane Headbutt Remix!

power to the people vs give peace a chance

All in all: informative and inspiring

The Video Vortex Conference 2008 was a bit different from what I had expected but I still found it quite informative, inspiring and enjoyed meeting and talking to a couple of very interesting people.

Last but not least: a big thank you to all the organisers of the conference and Seth Keen who moderated the panel that I had the opportunity to be a part of.

Video Vortex Conference 2008 (1 of 2): Open Source Ways Of Producing, Distributing And Promoting Online Video

January 26, 2008

Text of my presentation at the conference incl. all links and a few additions (27.01.08 – note that in my presentation the part about copyright was much shorter and did not include some of the arguments I mention in this text version!):

• As a film maker I am now more interested in online video than traditional (contemporary) cinema (and of course TV).

• (video shown) Indiworks Channel (2007, 1 min.): a trailer for my work. While I also uploaded this to the non-profit Internet Archive this link goes to the trailer’s page on my account –, which focuses on shows, is a good alternative to YouTube because they support Creative Commons licenses, have pretty good Flash Video (seems better than the one on YouTube) and offer the optional download of the uploaded video file.

Think about making a trailer that represents your own work…!

• Have a blog (mine is of course this one right here). If you are new to blogging a commercial solution like Google’s Blogger might be easiest to get started with. I would like to be able to recommend the open-source WordPress (since end of last year Movable Type is also open-source), but so far for me WordPress has too often been a frustrating experience: I find the admin interface inconsistent and confusing and for some strange reason the blog editor is too buggy to be really useful for more than just very basic text editing. My workaround solution for publishing to my blog: the Firefox extension Scribefire.

Note that the free blogging host works slightly differently than if you were to install WordPress (the software) on your own server – some limitations that I encounter on (embedding of Flash Video from or the Internet Archive not supported for security reasons) are possible if you have WordPress running on your own server. I find it unfortunate that has this limitation because it sheds a bit of a bad light on WordPress itself…

• What I showed next at the conference might have appeared a bit too simple for some to be worth demonstrating, yet I think this is a key concept you should be familiar with if you want to distribute your own works online:

How-to make your own channel (creating your own video RSS feed):

(There are of course other ways of doing this, here one very simple method.)

– Upload your video – if you are willing to share your work (free, non commercial distribution) you can upload it to the Internet Archive’s Open Source Video (Movie) section (upload works via ftp, just follow the instructions).

Example for an uploaded video’s page on the IA (my own video): At the Open-Source Pond. Like on I choose to use a Creative Commons licence for publishing my work, in this case the license allows you to remix the video for non-commercial purposes.

– Once the video is uploaded I go to my Video Bomb account and add it to have it appear on my submitted videos page (basically a playlist): on top of the page there is the orange RSS feed icon and the video I added is now in my feed (= channel).

Now you can advertise your feed (the URL connected to the orange RSS feed icon) on your blog and your fans can subscribe to your videos. This works in any feed aggregator like e.g. iTunes (“Advanced” > “Subscribe to Podcast…”) or the open-source Miro (from the Participatory Culture Foundation, they are also the ones behind Video Bomb).

Check out Miro, it’s not perfect yet (feels too slow on some systems, for Flash Video on the Mac you will need at least OS X 10.4), but together with the IA’s open-source movie section and this is one of the best tools for independent online video and movie distribution.

Make sure to submit your own feed to the official Miro Guide. You can also submit your feed to the iTunes podcast directory, but there will be one little extra requirement for doing this: even if you never intend to use it on the iTunes store, participatory culture à la Apple is only meant for those who own a credit card…

• For me online (RSS) film and video distribution is a dream come true: it was never this easy to get your work out to a world wide audience!

Example for online film distribution (my own movie): Vincent (44 min., ’96/’03). I see this is a slow but long term distribution. In the first year I had about 300 downloads, in the second year 1500. No idea yet what I’ll have at the end of December 2008 but I’ve had more downloads in two years than there were guests at the premiere.

• (video shown) E.T vs T2 (2006, 1 min., 19 sec.): a trailer mash-up by digital_kevin, his blog is a document of the real digital revolution between spring ’05 and winter ’06 (scroll down to the first blog entry to find a link to the .pdf file/archive of the first offline part of the blog).

I showed E.T vs T2 as an example for the absurdity that I think is traditional copyright. This video, while in my view a visual discussion and possibly more to the point than a written analysis could ever be, might be illegal to produce, distribute and posses (and all of that at least in a let’s say possible 20 or 30 min. version…).

Since knowledge is power and copyright restricts the distribution of information (= possible knowledge) copyright is a tool for those who have to make sure that those who have not will stay uninformed/uneducated/unentertained. Information wants to be free and therefore (traditional) copyright is morally wrong.

The Creative Commons model is a good first step in the right direction because it allows you to basically water down the copyright for your own work: you still can make sure that e.g. a big company won’t steal your project but at the same time you can e.g. allow free, unlimited copying of your work for e.g. non-commercial use…

There is an ever deeper going argument against copyright: when you think about it in all its details I believe you can only come to the conclusion that there is no way that any human can invent anything on his or her own, or more precisely: no one can actually invent anything at all, what we do is discover things for ourselves, our time, the society we live in. The ancient Egyptians already had batteries… Leonardo da Vinci “invented” among many other things the prototype for a car, different flying machines and if a newer theory is correct he could even have taken the first picture with a camera obscura… Those who first “invented” the wheel were just the ones who first discovered its usefulness (on our planet…). Composers like Vivaldi are still remarkable talents and have achieved a great deal, yet it seems unlikely to me that there is not at least one other composer in the universe who at some point did not come up with a combination of notes similar to what Vivaldi came up with: there is a seemingly endless repertoire of items you can combine, but not all combinations make too much sense and so nature with its trial and error approach makes sure that the most useful or pleasant combinations are found and passed on from one generation to the next. Excessive copyright protection like it happened with the Mickey Mouse Protection Act is simply theft and shows how corrupted those in charge can be.

Nature does not care about copyright – if it did evolution would have been stuck in a never ending legal battle with itself a long time ago and we would not be here today.

• For many more links and how-tos to online indie media distribution have a look at the P2P Audiovisual Guide (a project from the P2P foundation) that I maintain.

• In June 2006 I started learning/working with the free and open-source Blender, a fully featured 3D modelling and animation program available for Mac, Linux, Windows, Solaris, FreeBSD and Irix. There is a lot of free online documentation available for Blender, a good starting point is the Blender Wiki.

Blender is simply amazing. A couple of months ago (after learning Blender for about a year) I took part in a two months long 3ds Max training and just could not believe how much this “industry leading” package is behind Blender in terms of usability and in many many aspects also in terms of features. Apart from the fact that Max will cost you about € 5000.- and that you then can’t even change the code if you need it (Blender is free, the code is open-source) Max only (!) works under Windows (and now also under the DRM friendly Vista…).

There is one little Blender story I did not have time to talk about at the conference: Blender also has a cool, simple non-linear video editor – it is not perfect (yet) and since I am an editor I took some time to write a short analysis of the Blender NLE from my Final Cut Pro point of view. Now about half a year later I got an email from the main Blender NLE developer telling me that some of the features I suggested are now in CVS (so if all goes well they should make it to the next official Blender release). Try to get this kind of response from one of the major commercial 3D software companies…

If you like 3D animation make sure to check out the Blender made Elephant’s Dream – since this is an open movie you can also download all the production .blend files and learn from them.

• The last video I partly showed was a preview of my latest Blender made video called vivaldi rock (2008, 4 min. – in production) – I hope to upload the finished version at some point in February.

Coming tomorrow: Video Vortex Conference 2008 (2 of 2): Some thoughts to the conference, YouTube and more

See you in Amsterdam: Blender conference and Video Vortex conference

October 10, 2007

I’ll be at the blender conference in Amsterdam from Friday to Sunday this week (12-14.10.07) and really looking forward to it – it’s my first blender conference and the program looks really promising!

And I’ll be once more in Amsterdam early next year at the Video Vortex conference (18-19.01.08), only this time not in the audience, since I was invited to talk about “Alternative Platforms and Software”, here the full program of this event.

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